Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)?
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is also called coronary artery bypass surgery. It is an operating procedure that treats coronary artery disease (CAD).
CAD is the narrowing and blockage of coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscles) due to buildup of deposits of cholesterol and other substances in the coronary artery.
Coronary artery bypass surgery is done by taking blood vessels from another part of the body, commonly from the arms, legs, chest, or wrist, to make a new pathway for the flow of blood and oxygen into the heart, known as bypass. The new and healthy blood vessel is called a graft.
Coronary artery bypass graft is an example of total artery revascularization. The aim of revascularization is to restore blood flow and blood supply to the heart from the damaged arteries.
In the total artery revascularization technique, the healthy left internal mammary arteries (LIMA) and the right internal mammary arteries (RIMA), from the left and right sides of the chest are used respectively. The chest grafts are preferred for use in bypass surgeries as they are long-lasting, and have capability to repair. Moreover, they can change according to the body’s demand and are resistant to cholesterol (plaque) blockages in the arteries.
Reasons Of The Procedure - Causes Of CABG
Types Of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG):
There are three types of the coronary artery bypass graft. However, the two main types of CABG currently being used are on-pump and off-pump CABG. The selection of the CABG procedure types depends on the patient’s condition and health needs.
There are three types of coronary artery bypass surgery, which include:
In this type of CABG, the surgeon performs cardiac incisions (cuts), stops the patient’s heart and places the heart on an artificial heart-lung machine. This is done to restore the heart functioning and deliver oxygen-rich blood throughout the body and heart during the surgery.
After that, the coronary artery bypass graft is performed by taking a healthy artery from other parts of the body and attaching it above and below the blocked and narrowed arteries.
This is an easier CABG technique than the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft. Still, it is a risky procedure as it carries the chances of stroke and bleeding during operation.
This type of CABG is the reverse of an on-pump coronary artery bypass graft. Like on-pump procedure, it is done to create a passage (bypass) the coronary artery blockages. But it does not involve stopping the heart or placing the heart on a machine for performing the procedure.
The bypass graft procedure is done directly on the functioning heart. This means that the heart continues to function and provide blood to the body during the entire procedure. It is also known as ‘beating heart surgery‘. A healthy blood vessel is taken from another part of the body and is used to bypass (provide passage to) the damaged coronary artery.
The advantage of off-pump bypass surgery is that a smaller incision (cut) in the heart is needed for the surgical procedure. It also has faster recovery time and shorter hospital stay. Your doctor will decide which bypass procedure, on-pump or off-pump is the best for you according to your condition.
This technique of CABG involves minimal invasion for performing the bypass surgery. Instead of using large incisions for operating the heart, the surgeon uses minimal invasions.